An engineer is configuring a template in Panorama which will contain settings that need to be applied to all firewalls in production.
Which three parts of a template an engineer can configure? (Choose three.)
Why would a traffic log list an application as "not-applicable”?
traffic log would list an application as “not-applicable” if the firewall denied the traffic before the application match could be performed. This can happen if the traffic matches a security rule that is set to deny based on any parameter other than the application, such as source, destination, port, service, etc1. In this case, the firewall does not inspect the application data and discards the traffic, resulting in a “not-applicable” entry in the application field of the traffic log1.
Which type of policy in Palo Alto Networks firewalls can use Device-ID as a match condition?
The type of policy in Palo Alto Networks firewalls that can use Device-ID as a match condition is QoS. This is because Device-ID is a feature that allows the firewall to identify and classify devices on the network based on their characteristics, such as vendor, model, OS, and role1. QoS policies are used to allocate bandwidth and prioritize traffic based on various criteria, such as application, user, source, destination, and device2. By using Device-ID as a match condition in QoS policies, the firewall can apply different QoS actions to different types of devices, such as IoT devices, laptops, smartphones, etc3. This can help optimize the network performance and ensure the quality of service for critical applications and devices.
Which two factors should be considered when sizing a decryption firewall deployment? (Choose two.)
When sizing a decryption firewall deployment, two factors that should be considered are the encryption algorithm and the TLS protocol version. These factors affect the amount of resources and processing power that the firewall needs to decrypt and inspect SSL/TLS traffic.
The encryption algorithm is the method that the server and the client use to encrypt and decrypt the data exchanged in an SSL/TLS session. Different encryption algorithms have different levels of security and performance. For example, AES is a symmetric encryption algorithm that is faster and more efficient than RSA, which is an asymmetric encryption algorithm. However, RSA is more secure than AES because it uses public and private keys to encrypt and decrypt data, while AES uses a single shared key. The firewall must support the encryption algorithms that are used by the servers and clients that it decrypts, and it must have enough CPU and memory resources to handle the decryption workload12.
The TLS protocol version is the standard that defines how the server and the client establish and maintain an SSL/TLS session. Different TLS protocol versions have different features and requirements for encryption algorithms, cipher suites, certificates, handshake messages, etc. For example, TLS 1.3 is the latest and most secure version of TLS, which supports only strong encryption algorithms and cipher suites, such as AES-GCM and ChaCha20-Poly1305, and requires elliptic curve certificates. The firewall must support the TLS protocol versions that are used by the servers and clients that it decrypts, and it must have enough hardware acceleration resources to handle the decryption speed34.
The number of security zones in decryption policies and the number of blocked sessions are not relevant factors for sizing a decryption firewall deployment. The number of security zones in decryption policies only affects how the firewall matches traffic to decryption rules based on source and destination zones, but it does not affect the decryption performance or resource consumption. The number of blocked sessions only indicates how many sessions are denied by the firewall based on security policy or decryption policy rules, but it does not affect the decryption capacity or throughput56.
References: Encryption Algorithms, TLS Protocol Versions, Decryption Policy, PCNSE Study Guide (page 60)
Based on the graphic which statement accurately describes the output shown in the Server Monitoring panel?
An administrator is receiving complaints about application performance degradation. After checking the ACC, the administrator observes that there is an excessive amount of VoIP traffic.
Which three elements should the administrator configure to address this issue? (Choose three.)
To address the issue of application performance degradation due to excessive VoIP traffic, the administrator should configure QoS on the egress interface for the traffic flows and a QoS profile defining traffic classes. QoS stands for Quality of Service, which is a feature that allows the firewall to manage bandwidth usage and prioritize traffic based on various criteria, such as application, user, service, etc. QoS can help improve the performance and quality of latency-sensitive applications, such as VoIP, by guaranteeing them sufficient bandwidth and priority over other traffic1.
To enable QoS on the firewall, the administrator needs to create a QoS profile and a QoS policy. A QoS profile defines the eight classes of service that traffic can receive, including priority, guaranteed bandwidth, maximum bandwidth, and weight. A QoS policy identifies the traffic that matches a specific class of service based on source and destination zones, addresses, users, applications, services, etc2. The administrator can also create a custom QoS profile or use the default one.
The administrator should apply QoS on the egress interface for the traffic flows, which is the interface where the traffic leaves the firewall. This is because QoS can only shape outbound traffic and not inbound traffic. The egress interface can be either internal or external, depending on the direction of the VoIP traffic. For example, if the VoIP traffic is from internal users to external servers, then the egress interface is the untrust interface facing the ISP. If the VoIP traffic is from external users to internal servers, then the egress interface is the trust interface facing the LAN3.
The administrator should assign a high priority and a sufficient guaranteed bandwidth to the VoIP traffic in the QoS profile. This will ensure that the VoIP packets are processed first by the firewall and are not dropped or delayed due to congestion. The administrator can also limit or block other applications that consume too much bandwidth or pose security risks in the same or different QoS classes4.
An Application Override policy for SIP traffic is not necessary to address this issue. An Application Override policy is used to change or customize the App-ID of certain traffic based on port and protocol criteria. This can be useful for optimizing performance or security for some applications that are difficult to identify or have non-standard behaviors. However, SIP is a predefined App-ID that identifies Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) traffic, which is commonly used for VoIP signaling. The firewall can recognize SIP traffic without an Application Override policy5.
QoS on the ingress interface for the traffic flows is not effective to address this issue. As mentioned earlier, QoS can only shape outbound traffic and not inbound traffic. Applying QoS on the ingress interface will not have any impact on how the firewall handles or prioritizes the incoming packets6.
A QoS policy for each application is not required to address this issue. A QoS policy can match multiple applications in a single rule by using application filters or application groups. This can simplify and consolidate the QoS policy configuration and management. The administrator does not need to create a separate QoS policy for each application unless there is a specific need to assign different classes of service or parameters to each application7.
References: QoS Overview, Configure QoS, QoS Use Cases, QoS Best Practices, Application Override, QoS FAQ, Create a QoS Policy Rule
ln a security-first network, what is the recommended threshold value for apps and threats to be dynamically updated?
Schedule content updates so that they download-and-install automatically. Then, set a Threshold that determines the amount of time the firewall waits before installing the latest content. In a security-first network, schedule a six to twelve hour threshold.
An engineer needs to configure a standardized template for all Panorama-managed firewalls. These settings will be configured on a template named "Global" and will be included in all template stacks.
Which three settings can be configured in this template? (Choose three.)
A template is a set of configuration options that can be applied to one or more firewalls or virtual systems managed by Panorama. A template can include settings from the Device and Network tabs on the firewall web interface, such as login banner, SSL decryption exclusion, and dynamic updates4. These settings can be configured in a template named “Global” and included in all template stacks. A template stack is a group of templates that Panorama pushes to managed firewalls in an ordered hierarchy4. References: Manage Templates and Template Stacks, PCNSE Study Guide (page 50)
What must be configured to apply tags automatically based on User-ID logs?
To apply tags automatically based on User-ID logs, the engineer must configure a Log Forwarding profile that specifies the criteria for matching the logs and the tags to apply. The Log Forwarding profile can be attached to a security policy rule or a decryption policy rule to enable auto-tagging for the traffic that matches the rule. The tags can then be used for dynamic address groups, policy enforcement, or reporting1. References: Use Auto-Tagging to Automate Security Actions, PCNSE Study Guide (page 49)
An engineer manages a high availability network and requires fast failover of the routing protocols. The engineer decides to implement BFD.
Which three dynamic routing protocols support BFD? (Choose three.)
In the New App Viewer under Policy Optimizer, what does the compare option for a specific rule allow an administrator to compare?
The compare option for a specific rule in the New App Viewer under Policy Optimizer allows an administrator to compare the applications configured in the rule with the applications seen from traffic matching the same rule. This helps the administrator to identify any new applications that are not explicitly defined in the rule, but are implicitly allowed by the firewall based on the dependencies of the configured applications. The compare option also shows the usage statistics and risk levels of the applications, and provides suggestions for optimizing the rule by adding, removing, or replacing applications12. References: New App Viewer (Policy Optimizer), PCNSE Study Guide (page 47)
Why use Security Policy Optimizer and what are the benefits?
An administrator has configured a pair of firewalls using high availability in Active/Passive mode. Link and Path Monitoring is enabled with the Failure Condition set to "any." There is one link group configured containing member interfaces ethernet1/1 and ethernet1/2 with a Group Failure Condition set to "all."
Which HA state will the Active firewall go into if ethernet1/1 link goes down due to a failure?'
During the process of developing a decryption strategy and evaluating which websites are required for corporate users to access, several sites have been identified that cannot be decrypted due to technical reasons. In this case, the technical reason is unsupported ciphers Traffic to these sites will therefore be blocked if decrypted.
How should the engineer proceed?
If some sites cannot be decrypted due to technical reasons, such as unsupported ciphers, and blocking them is not an option, then the engineer should add the sites to the SSL Decryption Exclusion list to exempt them from decryption. The SSL Decryption Exclusion list is a predefined list of sites that are not subject to SSL decryption by the firewall. The list includes sites that use certificate pinning, mutual authentication, or unsupported cipher suites. The engineer can also add custom sites to the list if they have a valid business reason or technical limitation for not decrypting them34. Adding the sites to the SSL Decryption Exclusion list will allow the traffic to pass through without being decrypted or blocked by the firewall. References: SSL Decryption Exclusion, Troubleshoot Unsupported Cipher Suites
An engineer creates a set of rules in a Device Group (Panorama) to permit traffic to various services for a specific LDAP user group.
What needs to be configured to ensure Panorama can retrieve user and group information for use in these rules?
Refer to the exhibit.
Which will be the egress interface if the traffic's ingress interface is ethernet1/7 sourcing from 192.168.111.3 and to the destination 10.46.41.113?
In the second image, VW ports mentioned are 1/5 and 1/7. Hence it can not be a part of any other routing. So if any traffic coming as ingress from 1/7, it has to go out via 1/5.
The egress interface for the traffic with ingress interface ethernet1/7, source 192.168.111.3, and destination 10.46.41.113 will be ethernet1/5. This is because the traffic will match the virtual wire with interfaces ethernet1/5 and ethernet1/7, which is configured to allow VLAN-tagged traffic with tags 10 and 201. The traffic will also match the security policy rule that allows traffic from zone Trust to zone Untrust, which are assigned to ethernet1/7 and ethernet1/5 respectively2. Therefore, the traffic will be forwarded to the same interface from which it was received, which is ethernet1/53.
Which protocol is supported by GlobalProtect Clientless VPN?
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) and Virtual Machine (VM) environments, such as Citrix XenApp and XenDesktop or VMWare Horizon and Vcenter, support access natively through HTML5. You can RDP, VNC, or SSH to these machines through Clientless VPN without requiring additional third-party middleware. In environments that do not include native support for HTML5 or other web application technologies supported by Clientless VPN, you can use third-party vendors, such as Thinfinity, to RDP through Clientless VPN. Reference:
A network security administrator wants to inspect HTTPS traffic from users as it egresses through a firewall to the Internet/Untrust zone from trusted network zones.
The security admin wishes to ensure that if users are presented with invalid or untrusted security certificates, the user will see an untrusted certificate warning.
What is the best choice for an SSL Forward Untrust certificate?
Which three options does Panorama offer for deploying dynamic updates to its managed devices? (Choose three.)
Which three items must be configured to implement application override? (Choose three )
What are three tasks that cannot be configured from Panorama by using a template stack? (Choose three.)
Which three actions can Panorama perform when deploying PAN-OS images to its managed devices? (Choose three.)
In a template, which two objects can be configured? (Choose two.)
Phase two of a VPN will not establish a connection. The peer is using a policy-based VPN configuration.
What part of the configuration should the engineer verify?
A firewall engineer creates a destination static NAT rule to allow traffic from the internet to a webserver hosted behind the edge firewall. The pre-NAT IP address of the server is 153.6 12.10, and the post-NAT IP address is 192.168.10.10. Refer to the routing and interfaces information below.
What should the NAT rule destination zone be set to?
A network administrator configured a site-to-site VPN tunnel where the peer device will act as initiator None of the peer addresses are known
What can the administrator configure to establish the VPN connection?
When the peer device will act as the initiator and none of the peer addresses are known, the administrator can enable Passive Mode to establish the VPN connection. Passive Mode tells the firewall to wait for the peer device to initiate the VPN connection. The other options are incorrect. Option A, setting up certificate authentication, would require the administrator to know the peer device's certificate. Option C, using the Dynamic IP address type, would require the administrator to know the peer device's dynamic IP address. Option D, configuring the peer address as an FQDN, would require the administrator to know the peer device's fully qualified domain name.
What is the best definition of the Heartbeat Interval?
The firewalls exchange hello messages and heartbeats at configurable intervals to verify that the peer firewall is responsive and operational. Hello messages are sent from one peer to the other to verify the state of the firewall. The heartbeat is an ICMP ping to the HA peer. A response from the peer indicates that the firewalls are connected and responsive.
"A "heartbeat-interval" CLI command was added to the election settings for HA, this interval has a 1000ms minimum for all Palo Alto Networks platforms and is an ICMP ping to the other device through the HA control link."
A company wants to add threat prevention to the network without redesigning the network routing.
What are two best practice deployment modes for the firewall? (Choose two.)
An engineer is monitoring an active/active high availability (HA) firewall pair.
Which HA firewall state describes the firewall that is currently processing traffic?
In an active/active high availability (HA) firewall pair, the firewall that is currently processing traffic is in the “Active” state. This state indicates that the firewall is fully functional and can own sessions and set up sessions. An active firewall can be either active-primary or active-secondary, depending on the Device ID and the HA configuration. An active-primary firewall connects to User-ID agents, runs DHCP server and DHCP relay, and matches NAT and PBF rules with the Device ID of the active-primary firewall. An active-secondary firewall connects to User-ID agents, runs DHCP server, and matches NAT and PBF rules with the Device ID of the active-secondary firewall. An active-secondary firewall does not support DHCP relay1. References: HA Firewall States, PCNSE Study Guide (page 53)
Review the information below. A firewall engineer creates a U-NAT rule to allow users in the trust zone access to a server in the same zone by using an external,
public NAT IP for that server.
Given the rule below, what change should be made to make sure the NAT works as expected?
Refer to the exhibit.
Based on the screenshots above what is the correct order in which the various rules are deployed to firewalls inside the DATACENTER_DG device group?
During the implementation of SSL Forward Proxy decryption, an administrator imports the company's Enterprise Root CA and Intermediate CA certificates onto the firewall. The company's Root and Intermediate CA certificates are also distributed to trusted devices using Group Policy and GlobalProtect. Additional device certificates and/or Subordinate certificates requiring an Enterprise CA chain of trust are signed by the company's Intermediate CA.
Which method should the administrator use when creating Forward Trust and Forward Untrust certificates on the firewall for use with decryption?
Refer to the diagram. Users at an internal system want to ssh to the SSH server The server is configured to respond only to the ssh requests coming from IP 172.16.16.1.
In order to reach the SSH server only from the Trust zone, which Security rule and NAT rule must be configured on the firewall?
An administrator is attempting to create policies tor deployment of a device group and template stack. When creating the policies, the zone drop down list does not include the required zone.
What must the administrator do to correct this issue?
In order to see what is in a template, the device-group needs the template referenced. Even if you add the firewall to both the template and device-group, the device-group will not see what is in the template. The following link has a video that demonstrates that B is the correct answer.
An organization wants to begin decrypting guest and BYOD traffic.
Which NGFW feature can be used to identify guests and BYOD users, instruct them how to download and install the CA certificate, and clearly notify them that their traffic will be decrypted?
An SSL decryption profile is not a feature that can be used to identify guests and BYOD users, instruct them how to download and install the CA certificate, and clearly notify them that their traffic will be decrypted. An SSL decryption profile is a set of options that define how the firewall handles SSL/TLS traffic that it decrypts. An SSL decryption profile can include settings such as certificate verification, unsupported protocol handling, session caching, session resumption, algorithm selection, etc3. An SSL decryption profile does not provide any user identification or notification functions.
An SSL decryption policy is not a feature that can be used to identify guests and BYOD users, instruct them how to download and install the CA certificate, and clearly notify them that their traffic will be decrypted. An SSL decryption policy is a set of rules that determine which traffic the firewall decrypts based on various criteria, such as source and destination zones, addresses, users, applications, services, etc. An SSL decryption policy can also specify which type of decryption to apply to the traffic, such as SSL Forward Proxy, SSL Inbound Inspection, or SSH Proxy4. An SSL decryption policy does not provide any user identification or notification functions.
Comfort pages are not a feature that can be used to identify guests and BYOD users, instruct them how to download and install the CA certificate, and clearly notify them that their traffic will be decrypted. Comfort pages are web pages that the firewall displays to users when it blocks or fails to decrypt certain traffic due to security policy or technical reasons. Comfort pages can include information such as the reason for blocking or failing to decrypt the traffic, the URL of the original site, the firewall serial number, etc5. Comfort pages do not provide any user identification or notification functions before decrypting the traffic.
References: Configure an Authentication Portal, Redirect Users Through an Authentication Portal, SSL Decryption Profile, Decryption Policy, Comfort Pages
How to Implement SSH Decryption on a Palo Alto Networks Device
A network security administrator wants to begin inspecting bulk user HTTPS traffic flows egressing out of the internet edge firewall. Which certificate is the best choice to configure as an SSL Forward Trust certificate?
Regardless of whether you generate Forward Trust certificates from your Enterprise Root CA or use a self-signed certificate generated on the firewall, generate a separate subordinate Forward Trust CA certificate for each firewall. The flexibility of using separate subordinate CAs enables you to revoke one certificate when you decommission a device (or device pair) without affecting the rest of the deployment and reduces the impact in any situation in which you need to revoke a certificate. Separate Forward Trust CAs on each firewall also helps troubleshoot issues because the CA error message the user sees includes information about the firewall the traffic is traversing. If you use the same Forward Trust CA on every firewall, you lose the granularity of that information.