Original, unencrypted information is referred to as ____.
In cryptography, plaintext usually means unencrypted information pending input into cryptographic algorithms, usually encryption algorithms. Cleartext usually refers to data that is transmitted or stored unencrypted ("in clear").
During the process of encryption and decryption, what keys are shared?
Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is a cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys, which may be disseminated widely, and private keys, which are known only to the owner. The generation of such keys depends on cryptographic algorithms based on mathematical problems to produce one-way functions. Effective security only requires keeping the private key private; the public key can be openly distributed without compromising security.
In such a system, any person can encrypt a message using the receiver's public key, but that encrypted message can only be decrypted with the receiver's private key.
Alice and Bob have two keys of their own — just to be clear, that's four keys total. Each party has their own public key, which they share with the world, and their own private key which they well, which they keep private, of course but, more than that, which they keep as a closely guarded secret. The magic of public key cryptography is that a message encrypted with the public key can only be decrypted with the private key. Alice will encrypt her message with Bob's public key, and even though Eve knows she used Bob's public key, and even though Eve knows Bob's public key herself, she is unable to decrypt the message. Only Bob, using his secret key, can decrypt the message assuming he's kept it secret, of course.
Alice and Bob do not need to plan anything ahead of time to communicate securely: they generate their public-private key pairs independently, and happily broadcast their public keys to the world at large. Alice can rest assured that only Bob can decrypt the message she sends because she has encrypted it with his public key.
This is a 128 bit hash that is specified by RFC 1321. It was designed by Ron Rivest in 1991 to replace an earlier hash function.
The MD5 message-digest algorithm is a widely used hash function producing a 128-bit hash value. Although MD5 was initially designed to be used as a cryptographic hash function, it has been found to suffer from extensive vulnerabilities. It can still be used as a checksum to verify data integrity, but only against unintentional corruption. It remains suitable for other non-cryptographic purposes, for example for determining the partition for a particular key in a partitioned database.
MD5 was designed by Ronald Rivest in 1991 to replace an earlier hash function MD4, and was specified in 1992 as RFC 1321.
RFC 1321 describes what hash?
MD5 was designed by Ronald Rivest in 1991 to replace an earlier hash function MD4, and was specified in 1992 as RFC 1321.
In 1977 researchers and MIT described what asymmetric algorithm?
RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is a public-key cryptosystem that is widely used for secure data transmission. It is also one of the oldest. The acronym RSA comes from the surnames of Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman, who publicly described the algorithm in 1977.
Which of the following Secure Hashing Algorithm (SHA) produces a 160-bit digest from a message with a maximum length of (264-1) bits and resembles the MD5 algorithm?
SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm 1) is a cryptographic hash function which takes an input and produces a 160-bit (20-byte) hash value known as a message digest – typically rendered as a hexadecimal number, 40 digits long. It was designed by the United States National Security Agency, and is a U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard.
SHA-1 produces a message digest based on principles similar to those used by Ronald L. Rivest of MIT in the design of the MD2, MD4 and MD5 message digest algorithms, but generates a larger hash value (160 bits vs. 128 bits).
Bruce Schneier is a well-known and highly respected cryptographer. He has developed several pseudo random number generators as well as worked on teams developing symmetric ciphers. Which one of the following is a symmetric block cipher designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier team that is unpatented?
Blowfish is a symmetric-key block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier and included in many cipher suites and encryption products.
Asymmetric encryption method developed in 1984. It is used in PGP implementations and GNU Privacy Guard Software. Consists of 3 parts: key generator, encryption algorithm, and decryption algorithm.
the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which is based on the Diffie–Hellman key exchange. It was described by Taher Elgamal in 1985. ElGamal encryption is used in the free GNU Privacy Guard software, recent versions of PGP, and other cryptosystems. The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a variant of the ElGamal signature scheme, which should not be confused with ElGamal encryption.
John works as a cryptography consultant. He finds that people often misunderstand the reality of breaking a cipher. What is the definition of breaking a cipher?
Finding any method that is more efficient than brute force.
Bruce Schneier notes that even computationally impractical attacks can be considered breaks: "Breaking a cipher simply means finding a weakness in the cipher that can be exploited with a complexity less than brute force. Never mind that brute-force might require 2^128 encryptions; an attack requiring 2^110 encryptions would be considered a break...simply put, a break can just be a certificational weakness: evidence that the cipher does not perform as advertised."
Which one of the following is an authentication method that sends the username and password in cleartext?
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is a password-based authentication protocol used by Point to Point Protocol (PPP) to validate users. Almost all network operating system remote servers support PAP. PAP is specified in RFC 1334.
PAP is considered a weak authentication scheme (weak schemes are simple and have lighter computational overhead but are much more vulnerable to attack; while weak schemes may have limited application in some constrained environments, they are avoided in general). Among PAP's deficiencies is the fact that it transmits unencrypted passwords (i.e. in plain-text) over the network. PAP is therefore used only as a last resort when the remote server does not support a stronger scheme such as CHAP or EAP.
Which of the following areas is considered a strength of symmetric key cryptography when compared with asymmetric algorithms?
Symmetric key systems are considerably faster than asymmetric key systems but have issues with proper key distribution, controlling keys as more users need to communicate, and cannot provide non-repudiation or authenticity.
What does the OCSP protocol provide?
The Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) is an Internet protocol used for obtaining the revocation status of an X.509 digital certificate.It is described in RFC 6960 and is on the Internet standards track. It was created as an alternative to certificate revocation lists (CRL), specifically addressing certain problems associated with using CRLs in a public key infrastructure (PKI). Messages communicated via OCSP are encoded in ASN.1 and are usually communicated over HTTP. The "request/response" nature of these messages leads to OCSP servers being termed OCSP responders.
A number that is used only one time, then discarded is called what?
A nonce is an arbitrary number that can be used just once in a cryptographic communication. It is similar in spirit to a nonce word, hence the name. It is often a random or pseudo-random number issued in an authentication protocol to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks.
A _____ is a function is not reversible.
Hash functions are irreversible. This is actually required for them to fulfill their function of determining whether someone possesses an uncorrupted copy of the hashed data. This brings susceptibility to brute force attacks, which are quite powerful these days, particularly against MD5.
The Clipper chip is notable in the history of cryptography for many reasons. First, it was designed for civilian used secure phones. Secondly, it was designed to use a very specific symmetric cipher. Which one of the following was originally designed to provide built-in cryptography for the Clipper chip?
The Clipper chip was a chipset that was developed and promoted by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) as an encryption device that secured “voice and data messages" with a built-in backdoor that was intended to “allow Federal, State, and local law enforcement officials the ability to decode intercepted voice and data transmissions.". It was intended to be adopted by telecommunications companies for voice transmission. Introduced in 1993, it was entirely defunct by 1996.
he Clipper chip used a data encryption algorithm called Skipjack to transmit information and the Diffie–Hellman key exchange-algorithm to distribute the cryptokeys between the peers. Skipjack was invented by the National Security Agency of the U.S. Government; this algorithm was initially classified SECRET, which prevented it from being subjected to peer review from the encryption research community. The government did state that it used an 80-bit key, that the algorithm was symmetric, and that it was similar to the DES algorithm. The Skipjack algorithm was declassified and published by the NSA on June 24, 1998. The initial cost of the chips was said to be $16 (unprogrammed) or $26 (programmed), with its logic designed by Mykotronx, and fabricated by VLSI Technology, Inc (see the VLSI logo on the image on this page).
Calculates the average LSB and builds a table of frequencies and Pair of Values. Performs a test on the two tables. It measures the theoretical vs. calculated population difference.
A chi-squared test, is a statistical hypothesis test that is valid to perform when the test statistic is chi-squared distributed under the null hypothesis, specifically Pearson's chi-squared test and variants thereof. Pearson's chi-squared test is used to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the expected frequencies and the observed frequencies in one or more categories of a contingency table.
In cryptanalysis, the chi-squared test is used to compare the distribution of plaintext and (possibly) decrypted ciphertext. The lowest value of the test means that the decryption was successful with high probability. This method can be generalized for solving modern cryptographic problems.
Ciphers that write message letters out diagonally over a number of rows then read off cipher row by row. Also called zig-zag cipher.
Rail Fence Cipher
The rail fence cipher (also called a zigzag cipher) is a form of transposition cipher. It derives its name from the way in which it is encoded.
Which method of password cracking takes the most time and effort?
A brute-force attack consists of an attacker submitting many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly. The attacker systematically checks all possible passwords and passphrases until the correct one is found. Alternatively, the attacker can attempt to guess the key which is typically created from the password using a key derivation function. This is known as an exhaustive key search.
A brute-force attack is a cryptanalytic attack that can, in theory, be used to attempt to decrypt any encrypted data (except for data encrypted in an information-theoretically secure manner). Such an attack might be used when it is not possible to take advantage of other weaknesses in an encryption system (if any exist) that would make the task easier.
Hash algortihm created by the Russians. Produces a fixed length output of 256bits. Input message is broken up into 256 bit blocks. If block is less than 256 bits then it is padded with 0s.
The GOST hash function, defined in the standards GOST R 34.11-94 and GOST 34.311-95 is a 256-bit cryptographic hash function. It was initially defined in the Russian national standard GOST R 34.11-94 Information Technology – Cryptographic Information Security – Hash Function. The equivalent standard used by other member-states of the CIS is GOST 34.311-95.
Which of the following is the standard for digital certificates?
X.509 is a standard defining the format of public key certificates. X.509 certificates are used in many Internet protocols, including TLS/SSL, which is the basis for HTTPS, the secure protocol for browsing the web. They are also used in offline applications, like electronic signatures. An X.509 certificate contains a public key and an identity (a hostname, or an organization, or an individual), and is either signed by a certificate authority or self-signed. When a certificate is signed by a trusted certificate authority, or validated by other means, someone holding that certificate can rely on the public key it contains to establish secure communications with another party, or validate documents digitally signed by the corresponding private key.
A type of frequency analysis used to attack polyalphabetic substitution ciphers. It's used to try to discover patterns and use that information to decrypt the cipher.
In cryptanalysis, Kasiski examination (also referred to as Kasiski's test or Kasiski's method) is a method of attacking polyalphabetic substitution ciphers, such as the Vigenère cipher. It was first published by Friedrich Kasiski in 1863, but seems to have been independently discovered by Charles Babbage as early as 1846.
The most widely used digital certificate standard. First issued July 3, 1988. It is a digital document that contains a public key signed by the trusted third party, which is known as a Certificate Authority, or CA. Relied on by S/MIME. Contains your name, info about you, and a signature of a person who issued the certificate.
In cryptography, X.509 is a standard defining the format of public key certificates. X.509 certificates are used in many Internet protocols, including TLS/SSL, which is the basis for HTTPS, the secure protocol for browsing the web. They are also used in offline applications, like electronic signatures. An X.509 certificate contains a public key and an identity (a hostname, or an organization, or an individual), and is either signed by a certificate authority or self-signed. When a certificate is signed by a trusted certificate authority, or validated by other means, someone holding that certificate can rely on the public key it contains to establish secure communications with another party, or validate documents digitally signed by the corresponding private key.
The concept that if one bit of data changes, the cipher text will all completely change as well.
In cryptography, the avalanche effect is the desirable property of cryptographic algorithms, typically block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions, wherein if an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit), the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip). In the case of high-quality block ciphers, such a small change in either the key or the plaintext should cause a drastic change in the ciphertext. The actual term was first used by Horst Feistel, although the concept dates back to at least Shannon's diffusion.
Created in 1977 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman at MIT. Most widely used public key cryptography algorithm. Based on relationships with prime numbers. This algorithm is secure because it is difficult to factor a large integer composed of two or more large prime factors.
RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is a public-key cryptosystem that is widely used for secure data transmission. It is also one of the oldest. The acronym RSA comes from the surnames of Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman, who publicly described the algorithm in 1977. An equivalent system was developed secretly, in 1973 at GCHQ (the British signals intelligence agency), by the English mathematician Clifford Cocks. That system was declassified in 1997.
Which of the following is used to encrypt email and create digital signatures?
RSA use for encryption email and create digital signatures
An attack that is particularly successful against block ciphers based on substitution-permutation networks. For a block size b, holds b-k bits constant and runs the other k through all 2k possibilities. For k=1, this is just deferential cryptanalysis, but with k>1 it is a new technique.
Integral cryptanalysis is a cryptanalytic attack that is particularly applicable to block ciphers based on substitution-permutation networks. It was originally designed by Lars Knudsen as a dedicated attack against Square, so it is commonly known as the Square attack. It was also extended to a few other ciphers related to Square: CRYPTON, Rijndael, and SHARK. Stefan Lucks generalized the attack to what he called a saturation attack and used it to attack Twofish, which is not at all similar to Square, having a radically different Feistel network structure. Forms of integral cryptanalysis have since been applied to a variety of ciphers, including Hierocrypt, IDEA, Camellia, Skipjack, MISTY1, MISTY2, SAFER++, KHAZAD, and FOX (now called IDEA NXT).
A _________ is a digital representation of information that identifies you as a relevant entity by a trusted third party.
A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for verifying the authenticity of digital messages or documents. A valid digital signature, where the prerequisites are satisfied, gives a recipient very strong reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender (authentication), and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity).
What is a salt?
Random bits intermixed with a hash to increase randomness and reduce collisions
Salt is random data that is used as an additional input to a one-way function that hashes data, a password or passphrase. Salts are used to safeguard passwords in storage. Historically a password was stored in plaintext on a system, but over time additional safeguards were developed to protect a user's password against being read from the system. A salt is one of those methods.
Which of the following is the successor of SSL?
TLS 1.0 was first defined in RFC 2246 in January 1999 as an upgrade of SSL Version 3.0, and written by Christopher Allen and Tim Dierks of Consensus Development. As stated in the RFC, "the differences between this protocol and SSL 3.0 are not dramatic, but they are significant enough to preclude interoperability between TLS 1.0 and SSL 3.0". Tim Dierks later wrote that these changes, and the renaming from "SSL" to "TLS", were a face-saving gesture to Microsoft, "so it wouldn't look [like] the IETF was just rubberstamping Netscape's protocol".